Your Rights

We, the people all have free will and choice. This means we are in charge of our own decisions and ourselves and not others. This is how mankind has spent 99% of our time on earth in co-operative, non-coercive, non-hierarchical, self-organising tribal societies.

If a Creator designed us, then it makes no sense at all for the Vatican to claim authority over us; and, know what’s best for us.

In effect, the Vatican is saying that we were created with free will, but, wants people in funny hats to use their free will for us. We need free will to survive and if free will and self-authority is oppressed or removed, it follows that our self preservation and survival is at risk.

And, indeed, it has been: all the abuse in our society results from people taking authority over others that those people do not have. This notion is contrary to natural law and natural justice; and, our nature as sovereign people. 

 

What is sovereignty?

Do we, the people work for Government? OR Does Government work for US?

“Sovereignty itself is… not subject to law, for it is the author and source of law… while sovereign powers are delegated to the agencies of government, sovereignty itself remains with the people, by whom and for whom all government exists and acts.” Justice Thomas Stanley Matthews in Yick Wo v. Hopkins [p. 370]:

Sovereignty remains with the people, by whom all government exists and acts;

Download PDF: ON SOVEREIGNTY – 2017.04.23

 

UNALIENABLE RIGHTS

Unalienable rights are Creator-given natural and sovereign rights that existed before man-made rules and can never be changed or lowered or commodified by any agency of THE STATE; only before a fair hearing of equals and peers; nor, can rights can be taken away by any contract or waiver;

  • the right to life, freedom and happiness;
  • the right to trade freely without let or hinder;
  • the right to a fair exchange for the sweat of one’s labour;
  • the unlimited right to contract or not to contract;
  • the right to neither be deemed, nor pledged as ‘human’ capital;
  • the right to travel freely without let or hinder;
  • the right to be presumed innocent without arrest, detention, harm or loss of private property before a fair trial;
  • the right to establishing the truth as the “that without which not” of any dispute;
  • the right to be informed of all subject-matter and jurisdiction;
  • the right to challenge the jurisdiction of any court;
  • the right to a fair trial in a community court free from the BAR legal system;
  • the right to a fair trial before equals and peers;
  • the right to a fair trial according to principles of restorative justice;
  • the right to true justice which is seeking reconciliation and not retribution;
  • the right to use natural law and natural justice as a restraint against tyranny;
  • the right to equality as a people according to un-enacted law-of-the-land;
  • the right to be free from any and all legal fiction;
  • the right of liberty and to never suffer the indignity of detention or imprisonment which is for slaves; and, slavery has been abolished;
  • the right to unconsent to harm or loss;
  • the right to educate and inform all people as to their rights;
  • the right to any belief and religion; and, to keep it private;
  • the right to have offspring and family and clothe, feed, protect and shelter them;
  • the right to claim custodianship of land one lives on and works, without trespass;
  • the right to not have to pay for the use of land;
  • the right of every community to self-determination and self-governance;
  • the right to lawful rebellion against economic apartheid, colonial domination, alien occupation and or racist regimes.
  • the right to lawful self-defence when self-preservation is at risk;
  • the right to declare law-of-war subject to law-of-peace to prevent invasion;
  • the right to peace and the right to be left alone when law-abiding and peaceful;
  • the right to declare and establish any other right we deem fit for the protection of our unalienable rights;

The law does not protect those that slumber on their rights;

Download PDF: UNALIENABLE RIGHTS – 2017.04.23

 

What is Government?

“What is government itself but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary.” – James Madison

SUPREME COURT RULING – NO CORPORATE JURISDICTION OVER THE NATURAL MAN: Supreme Court of the United States 1795,

“Inasmuch as every government is an artificial person, an abstraction, and a creature of the mind only, a government can interface only with other artificial persons. The imaginary, having neither actuality nor substance, is foreclosed from creating and attaining parity with the tangible. The legal manifestation of this is that no government, as well as any law, agency, aspect, court, etc. can concern itself with anything other than corporate, artificial persons and the contracts between them.” S.C.R. 1795, (3 U.S. 54; 1 L.Ed. 57; 3 Dall. 54)

Government is  merely a legal fiction which was created solely to protect peoples’ rights, property and natural resources; and, to provide the people with services, not to lord over them.

Ask yourself, how can a piece of paper cannot rule over a people? It cannot, dear people; only by our consent;

It has no jurisdiction over the tangible as affirmed by the above ruling.

 

The Real Problem is Government

By Doug Casey; extracts; 2016-04-15

Does the U.S. government serve any useful purpose? I give a good number of speeches each year. For some time I’ve asked audiences a question: “What useful purpose does the U.S. government serve?” I do that not to be challenging or provocative, but to actually find out if anyone else can think of a useful purpose the government serves. The question at first shocks, then amuses and then perplexes almost everyone because it is both so obvious and outrageous that no one ever thinks of asking it. Most people accept the institution of government because it has always been there; they have always assumed it was essential. People do not question its existence, much less its right to exist.

Government sponsors untold waste, criminality, and inequality in every sphere of life it touches, giving little of value in return. Its contributions to the commonweal are wars, pogroms, confiscations, persecutions, taxation, regulation, and inflation. And it’s not just some governments of which that are true, although some are clearly much worse than others. It’s an inherent characteristic of all government…

Governments can be much more dangerous than the mobs that give them birth. The Jacobin regime of the French Revolution is a prime example. 

Source: http://www.internationalman.com//articles/doug-casey-the-real-problem-is-government

Download the PDF from: http://www.caseyresearch.com/go/u44a6-2/MAN

 

Martin Luther - injustice anywhere

 

Everyone should be able to comprehend the law

Law School in 10 Minutes!
Published on Sep 29, 2015

What you need to know. — Most lawyers don’t have a clue about law! They learn manipulation and procedure. Today Gav shares keys to understanding real law.

 

What is Law?

Every form of law has it’s boundaries and limits; in legal speak it is called jurisdiction.

In order to comprehend the nature of our rights, it is MOST IMPORTANT to know the basic principles of law. See: https://giftoftruth.wordpress.com/what-is-law/

 

lord acton - power corrupts

Once authorities and our governing institutions are seen for what they are, upon which all their exploitation is dependent, belief in authority evaporates and along with it all the power the predatory authority figures hold.

Source extracts from: http://humansarefree.com/2016/02/the-catholic-church-admitted-in-writing.html

 

Liberty Defined – Ron Paul

It’s all about peoples’ liberty and really nothing else. Congressman and three times Presidential candidate Senator Ron Paul of Texas enjoys a national reputation as the premier advocate for liberty in politics today. This is an excerpt from the introduction of Ron Paul’s book Liberty Defined: 50 Essential Issues that Affect Our Freedom and clearly explains the real problems that every country in the world is facing right now in this US-dominated global hegemony.

Liberty Defined

04/07/2016 by Ron Paul.

Introduction: 

Liberty means to exercise human rights in any manner a person chooses so long as it does not interfere with the exercise of the rights of others. This means, above all else, keeping government out of our lives. Only this path leads to the unleashing of human energies that build civilization, provide security, generate wealth, and protect the people from systematic rights violations. In this sense, only liberty can truly ward off tyranny, the great and eternal foe of mankind…

The crisis demands an intellectual revolution. Fortunately, this revolution is under way, and if one earnestly looks for it, it can be found. Participation in it is open to everyone. Not only have our ideas of liberty developed over centuries, they are currently being eagerly debated, and a modern, advanced understanding of the concept is on the horizon. The Revolution is alive and well.

The goal is liberty. The results of liberty are all the things we love, none of which can be finally provided by government. We must have the opportunity to provide them for ourselves, as individuals, as families, as a society, and as a country.

Read full article at: https://mises.org/library/liberty-defined-2

Download as pdf: LIBERTY DEFINED – RON PAUL

 

The Presumption of Liberty

The source of pre-existing rights is the nature of Man himself found in natural law, which has a presumption of liberty described in the pdf link below. The purpose of law is to protect the rights of society, carefully tailored so that it does not restrict any pre-existing rights further than necessary to remedy the perceived harm. Download pdf at: http://www.naturallawremedy.com/articles/Section48-The-Presumption-of-Liberty.pdf

 

What is a ‘man of straw’?

Unbeknownst to most people, government created another type of ‘CITIZEN’ such as ‘JANE DOE’ in an ALL CAPITALS NAME that sounds exactly like Jane Doe’s family name, but it is NOT her! The following clip called “Meet Your Strawman is 5 minutes and explains it perfectly;

Another way of explaining the difference between a “person” and a “people”; this is happening in every country in the world; it is one world system;

 

Cult of “Personality

In truth we live in a cult of personality wherein everything has been fictionalised and “alter egos” created; even our names have been duplicated and traded as assets in law-of-the-sea; see: https://abathembublog.wordpress.com/cult-of-personality/

 

It’s Your Copyright, Or, Stop Being Stupid Part 32

172a3-judge2banna  Judge Anna von Reitz

The rats seize upon your given name while you are still a babe in your cradle, and they establish a false copyright on it, claiming that it is the name of a debtor to their corporation. They then set up an ACCOUNT in your GIVEN NAME to service the debt. Then throughout your life they have addressed claims against that NAME and they have hired the American Bar Association to operate their corporate tribunals as debt collection agencies under color of law, disguised as American public courts, to collect those debts.

That is the essence of the daily fleecing of America.

It is a little hard to wrap your head around the first go, so let’s examine it step by step and a bit deeper.

A baby— let’s give him the name “Paul Anthony Mitchell” is born in Hennepin County, Minnesota.

What should happen is that his name should be recorded as a land asset. He comes from the land and returns to the land —- “For dust thou art, and to dust returneth”.

This is a recording — not a “registration”.

A recording is a public record of an event or testimony or ownership interest in private property, etc., while a “registration” involves international commerce and involves giving up all or part of your ownership interest in the asset being registered.

Little Paul Anthony Mitchell is the “Holder in Due Course” of the name and estate. His interest must be recorded by his parents or there is no public record in his favor. Instead, the local federal franchise “state” doing business in this case as the “State of Minnesota” registers his name instead, and in so doing, makes him a “ward of the state”.

Once he is a “ward of the state” he becomes property belonging to the state corporation and not to his parents. When he comes of age, if he does not correct this “presumed” political status, he remains a “ward of the state” for the rest of his life—-and the state “inherits” all the benefit of his name and estate. He remains a chattel property and dependent.

This de facto process of undisclosed enslavement has been used against virtually all Americans and this form of slavery has been continuously practiced by the “United States Government” since the 1860’s, first against black people and “rebels” and later against virtually everyone on this continent.

In promoting this practice the vermin responsible have violated both international law and the actual Constitution we are all owed at birth—-and, importantly, they have infringed upon your Common Law Copyright guaranteed by the Copyright Act of 1790.

Read more at the above link

 

MESSAGE TO POPE FRANCIS TO END WORLD SLAVERY

All current laws are derived from ecclesiastical canons of the Holy See which are  merely a continuation of the Holy Roman Empire and much has been transliterated from Babylonian commerce and law which has usurped Mosaic law. Many legal terms of today such as ‘republic’ and ‘citizen’ are derived from Roman law.

Most people do not know that we are still under the yoke of papal bulls and edicts stretching back into the mists of time; remember, Ecclesiastes tell us that ‘nothing under the sun is new’.

The birth certificate upon which corporations and government makes their claim is nothing more than a Roman slave certificate as best described by a fellow truth-seeker:

 

We, the people in every country and nation know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust.

We would be the first to advocate the obeying of just laws. People have moral and ethical responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. Gandhi promoted non-violent, yet non-compliant disobedience and declared disobedience of unjust laws a sacred duty. St. Augustine is attributed with saying: “An unjust law is no law at all.”

 

pope-francis-false-prophet

 

The Doctrine of Scarcity — Calling Out Pope Francis

12405-judge2banna  Judge Anna von Reitz

For many generations, the Doctrine of Scarcity has been enshrined in the politics of the Roman Catholic Church. It has been a core teaching of the Church that the poor are blessed and that there is something precious and noble about the suffering of poverty, starvation and deprivation of all kinds.

Being poor was thought to be a virtue, indeed, a necessity of virtue.

Everything related to a healthy human life– the need to eat and drink and have sex and even wash our bodies— has been denied in the name of the Doctrine of Scarcity.

You have said that you want a “poor Church”. That’s fine. Divest it of its riches, its pomp, its self-adoring and venal glories. Make of it what it was meant to be, a simple fellowship bound together by the Holy Spirit and the teachings of Jesus. Let all the Orders stand in awe of the Franciscans and the other Mendicants, who have placed their faith so utterly beyond the grasp of Mammon.

Indeed, Francis, if there is any virtue in poverty it is simply this—that by being poor, the poor give us the opportunity to grow beyond our own selfishness.

They give the rest of us someone to give to, someone to help who needs help.

And that is a great service to humanity.

I don’t miss the point, I simply know that the same lessons can be learned by other means and that there is no reason to cling to the Doctrine of Scarcity any longer.

This is why I have placed the Credit of Jesus on the books of the Vatican Chancery Court, declared the beginning of the Thousand Years of Peace, authorized the payment of any debts held against any Names, or NAMES, and have initiated the Doctrine of Abundance.

There is no longer any logic to the idea that many must be downcast in order for humanity to be lifted up.

The Doctrine of Scarcity has been a manure pile and yes, from it, our Father has grown roses; but the Doctrine of Abundance is the truth and the law of our Father in Heaven, who has provided far more than enough for all his children to have health and happiness on earth.

So let it be that peace reigns instead of war. Let the truth of abundance overwhelm the lie of scarcity. Let the true knowledge of our Father fill the earth as it has been decreed. And let us enter into the Thousand Years of Peace.

 

Also from Judge Anna,

 

YOU KNOW SOMETHING IS WRONG WHEN

“If you really are serious about knowing how to restore the Republic and your freedom you need to put some effort into knowing how our freedoms are being robbed from us by fraud, deception, threat, duress, coercion, and intimidation every day of our lives and have been for over 100 years by the criminals who have hijacked our government, wealth, and heritage for their own gain and evil intentions.” – Judge Anna von Reitz

Knowledge is power, and the ultimate civil power resides in we, the people. Her website is focused on the U.S.A., but the African story is very similar in it’s essence.

Anna has two books. They are both very important to freedom. Here are the links.

“Disclosure 101” is a compilation of some of her earlier writings: Disclosure 101

You Know Something Is Wrong When… An American Affidavit of Probable Cause      is the blockbuster you need to read.

 

ANNA VONREITZ - YOU KNOW SOMETHING IS WRONG

This book blows the lid off the corrupt corporate entity calling itself our government, and shows the entire history of Fraud, Deception, Threat, Duress, Coercion, and Intimidation the perpeTRAITORS have used to steal our entire heritage and prosperity for over 150 years: Get it Here at Amazon

Source: http://annavonreitz.com/

 

Here are some of her most educational posts:

The Nut is Cracked  http://www.annavonreitz.com/nutiscracked.pdf 

For a Deeper Understanding  http://www.annavonreitz.com/deeperunderstanding.pdf

Defined: The Source of the Fraud! From the Beginning! http://www.annavonreitz.com/defined.pdf  

US Corporation Fraud: Why the Courts are at Fault http://www.annavonreitz.com/courtsatfault.pdf

What is the Constitution?  http://www.annavonreitz.com/constitution.pdf 

Your Offer to Contract is Rejected  http://www.annavonreitz.com/youroffertocontract.pdf

Did you give your Consent to any of this?  http://www.annavonreitz.com/classicdisinformation.pdf  

 

Judge Anna and her people have filed a commercial lien on the U.S. BAR ASSOCIATION at the end of 2015 and which has now been perfected.

The actual document of the Affidavit of Obligation and Commercial Lien against the American Bar Association  http://annavonreitz.com/commerciallien.pdf

Why All Contracts Are Void and Fraud By Nature — Language and Parse Syntax  http://annavonreitz.com/voidcontracts.pdf

 

The Creed of Freedom

– G. Edward Griffin

 

Creed of Freedom

 

I believe that only individuals have rights, not the collective group; that these rights are intrinsic to each individual, not granted by the state; for if the state has the power to grant them, it also has the power to deny them, and that is incompatible with personal liberty.

I believe that a just government derives its power solely from the governed. Therefore, the state must never presume to do anything beyond what individual citizens also have the right to do. Otherwise, the state is a power unto itself and becomes the master instead of the servant of society.  http://creedoffreedom.com/

 

Freedomfoce

 

http://www.freedomforceinternational.org/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y1-0o0cSw24

 

How The United Nations Enslaves Us & Destroys Our Sovereignty

 

By G. Edward Griffin

https://youtu.be/uA9PWaVxKHQ

The LAWFUL Remedy to Tyranny

How You Lost Your Rights, and How You Can Get Them Back

By Richard Walbaum

Introducing the book…

See the blog.

You can download some chapters for free. And download the free Workbook that provides a succinct theory of law and step-by-step procedure for applying the theory of law.

Paperback and ebook are available: http://www.naturallawremedy.com/

 

How to Disobey Unjust Laws

 

Uploaded on Feb 22, 2012

Disobedience is the lawful and recommended remedy to any arbitrary, unreasonable, or unjust law, based upon natural law which is the foundation upon which our nation and constitution were founded. Natural law provides a legal basis to resist tyranny that can be argued in court. This video is based on the book “The LAWFUL Remedy to Tyranny,” available at http://NaturalLawRemedy.com

 

Examples

An example of a Statement of Truth and Lawful Claim:

Denis-Peter has taken steps to prove he is not a Persona, or legal fiction.

These steps are here on Public notice which was neIther challenged, or rebutted:

http://public-notice-online.org/2016/02/statement-of-truth-and-rightful-claim/

with claim:–

http://public-notice-online.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/My-rightful-claim-of-Beneficiary-and-secure-creditor-Autographe.compressed.pdf

 

Your Rights – Southern Africa

We must never forget that the RSA apartheid era and the laws of the 1950s and earlier were “legal”; before that, since the 1910 Union of South Africa era, colonial rule by force of law was “legal”. Since 1994, we have unfortunately drifted away from the 1955 Freedom Charter and 1994 RDP Policy Framework, both which signify the will of many of the people of Southern Africa, towards the Washington Consensus which is also “legal”;

In the 1950s the people could no longer tolerate the racial apartheid regime and united under the Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Freedom Charter is wherein the will of we, the people was established. From this flowed the 1994 Reconstruction & Development Programme Policy Framework.

Since 1994, in the new constitutional era, governance is supposed to be based on the will of the people; the Bill of Rights is supposed to be the supreme law of the land and supposed to be enshrined within the Constitution of South Africa and any conduct or law contrary to the Bill of Rights is supposed to be null and void back to the beginning.

Read further at: https://giftoftruth.wordpress.com/constitutional/

Now, consider that it is the SAME central banking system since 1910 AND the SAME bar associations, law societies, courts and legal system THROUGHOUT ALL 3 ERAS!!! How can we expect a different outcome using the same model.? Every country has its’ own story;

 

Modern education

 

UNITED STATES OF SOUTH AFRICA

An Affidavit of Probable Cause on How Southern Africa, instead of marching straight on to Freedom, made a short left towards the Washington Consensus; and, what we, the people can do to fix it;

And, in so doing, finally finish the “long walk to freedom” once and for all…

In Part I we explained exactly what CONSTITUTION OF RSA INC. is;

In Part II we discussed the company registered as RSA INC. and its relationship to the U.S.A.;

In Part III we followed the road leading to Rome and Vatican;

In Part IV we expose the folk treason and that since 1994, the 99% are still being sold down the river;

In Part V we took a look into the occult system and the mind of the occultists; 

In Part VI we discover the truth regarding money;

In Part VII we cover the beginning and end of Babylonian commerce;

In Part VIII we lay down the basics of what law is;

In Part IX we highlight what has not been fulfilled in the RDP since 1994;

In Part X we discuss the two outcomes: the new world order  that the elite want; and, the new earth that the people want; what will it be?

see also: https://abathembublog.wordpress.com/rsa-inc/

 

Facing Eviction, Foreclosure or Repossession?

See: https://giftoftruth.wordpress.com/notices/

 

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15 thoughts on “Your Rights

    1. Agreed Matome; we say that we peace for peace; once you realise your power then it becomes a humbling experience, so careful how you wield it; where your rights end, mine begins; thank you for reading and not surfing facebook 🙂 “Education is the most powerful weapon that we, the people can use to bring about change”; be blessed; in peace – uza

  1. what a mouthfull. this is not for the faint hearted.

    how then do i A4V a tax, on which document, SARS dont send invoice but an IRP5?

  2. after filling documents in court, is it possible to claim back all my tax money since 1st day of employment?

    1. Hi Simphiwe, we only use our processes for legal defence; you can A4V your tax or do a conditional acceptance; the doors have now been closed on monetising your strawman account;

      Technically, you cannot make a claim because the strawman does not belong to you; only it’s liabilities and burdens are yours if you claim it;

      In addition, all ‘registered’ entities are operating in debt, there is no credit there to claim, its fiat (fiction); you are the value, not the strawman;

      Lastly, we cannot serve 2 masters, so we need to decide who and what we are and stick to that.

      First and foremost, never be a secured party debtor; rather deal at arm’s length as trustee, you standing in a superior living law and your strawman is the piece in this game of monopoly; if you claim to be the piece on the board, you have waivered all rights to be deemed a people; now you are merely a ‘person’, a legal fiction and your privileges and benefits are to be taxed and issued with compliance notices at every turn;

      Start creating another life; open a different bank account, move or relocate if you have to; close your accounts; I did it in one month from having a running concern to closing or revoking all contracts;

      Was daunting, but the best thing I could have done. Read the Express Trust page and the manual for your midterm goal.

      For your short term remedy read the Bills of Exchange page.

      In peace, bt

    1. Remember the Vatican and the free masons and even the British Monarch were high jacked by the Elite Cabal and they control these people. Have a look at the documentation on the Swissindo page.

  3. Hi, w.r.t. ‘SA Guide to Sovereignty & Commerce’, section 10.8 on pg 185 states ‘SARB, SARS & National Treasury’ as not part of our National Govt:

    1. By ‘Federal’ do you mean the ‘US Federal’?
    2. I had a look at the ‘Public Service Act’ and found that the ‘National Treasury’ is in fact listed as a service.

    Do you perhaps have a link to the relevant source info, especially the concrete link between SARB/SARS?

    1. It is well hidden in the codes. Read Act 94 of 1994 (Banking act), act 2 of 1996 (SA Reserve bank), Act 58 of 1964 (Tax act as amended) Also google the South African Note company and the SA mint. The SA note company is not in SA, it is in Switzerland and both are subsidiaries of the reserve bank. There is no direct link between SARB and SARS. SARS don’t pay money into the reserve bank it pays the IMF for the interest on the National debt (loans from IMF/World bank) Just like the IRS in the USA it too is a private company who collects money in the from of tax which is in fact payment for the use of their private money (Reserve Bank Notes/Money of account) The treasury is just the outlet of the reserve bank and information gatherer. Go onto the .gov site of the SARB and snoop around.

      The names of the share holders in SARB is not available directly. The government has been infiltrated and the members of parliament and the legislator members have been “contaminated” to be puppets of the banking cabal. Each one of them are in some form or the other indebted to the bankers who now control them and get them to pass laws that suit their agenda. Yes the government appoint the governor of the SARB who is now under their control plus a few other people but the majority shareholders run the show.

      It is a puzzle of which you have to put the pieces together in your mind to see the full picture. How did 150 000 people work on building the atom bomb in WWII without knowing that they were building an Atom Bomb? It was and still is done by compartmentalizing each aspect of the process. The same happens at the IMF/World Bank and BIS (bank of International settlements) The people who work there have never seen the full picture of what is going on right under their noses.

      It will be so much more valuable to you when you are guided to discover these things than if I just give it to you. Some of the information gets removed by google and the like so information come and go so save it when you get it. Have a look at what the people in the UK, Canada and US do, have a look at websites like National Liberty Alliance and join FB pages and scratch around on YouTube you will be amazed at what you can dig up. However I will at some point in time put it together in book form if time permits.

      Enjoy your road of discovery!

      Peace!

      Ben

  4. With regards to “Common Law Right to travel unencumbered” it must be remembered that the practice of being a driver comes a long way through history. People use to take their goods, livestock (sheep and cattle) to the open market travelling on the king’s road. Some times it happened that the livestock would wonder into someone else’s yard and eat his beautiful flowers and trample his veggies. The land owner would become angry and fire a few shots in the air to disperse of the livestock from his property causing a stampede through the market causing harm to other people and their belongings at the market.

    Frustrated people when to the king complaining about the state of affairs and the remedy the king gave was this: there will be appointed certain capable people (tested for competency) to drive the heard of livestock, goods to the market place and it will be their responsibility to ensure the safety of the goods and the property of other people. The owner of the goods (livestock) will pay the driver for transporting his goods to the market and pay the king for making use of his road because livestock can and do damage the kings dirt roads specially after rain (dirt becomes mud) and it will need to be repaired at the cost of the owner of the livestock or goods being transported. Thus the definition that a driver is someone who transport goods from point A to point B and is being paid to do so. And such a conveyor (vehicle) must pay (in the form of a licence) to be able to travel on the roads, hence the vehicle registration and licence.

    Thus drivers must be registered with the king as being competent to do their job and must pay for the use of the kings roads. So if you are not engaged in commerce transporting goods from point A to point B and being paid to do so you are per definition not a driver but a traveller and thus do not require a drivers licence (proof of competency) or a vehicle licence and may make use of the roads for free and for the purpose of travelling.

    How ever I feel strong about it that you should still have some form of proof that you are competent to handle a motorised form of transportation or you could become a danger or stand to endanger and damage the property and lives of other people. Gee I am starting to sound like a law maker with all the ands and ors LOL Ha Ha 🙂

    In Peace!

  5. If the above definition about signatures are comprehended then it would make sense why the bank’s employees do not sign (usually) any bank document because the banks name and details appear on the face of the document as it is the banks letter head therefore it is a pre-signed document and the bank are therefore liable. Meaning its agents and staff specially the CEO and board of directors of the bank become liable by default if their name also appear on any document with the bank’s signature (letterhead) on it. The Maxim – notice to agent is notice to principal …… can be interpreted as “all inclusive” thus bank officials (staff) who’s name appear on their letter head carry the liability. Thus you don’t need a second signature on the loan document because it is there already and right at the bottom of each page is the names of the board of directors – their status has caught up with them ! 🙂

    Just how far one can take it to make them (the board of directors) personally liable I don’t know. If lawyers who are Incorporated become individually and combined liable then surly it must apply to a board of directors too?

    In Peace

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