To know where we are going to, we must first know where we are coming from…
A brief history of how we got here – In 1213 King John granted authority to the Holy See; and, England and Ireland were placed under the laws of the papacy; the 1493 the papal bull – Inter Caetera – named the indigenous peoples of earth as homo animales [animals]; and, this was the “licence” for European nations of the compass to invade, plunder and conquer the indigenous peoples of Africa, the Americas, Pacific islands and others; and, falsely claimed their lands; in what is indoctrinated by the invader as the “age of discovery”; an age of pure evil; in truth, these laws still falsely stand, even today; even the United Nations called for it to be revoked; a monument to racial discrimination; we say, fraud makes it null & void.
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP)
The UNDRIP introduction in summary confesses the rights of indigenous peoples, [and all people for that matter as we are all “indigenous” to earth]:
To freely determine their own political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development;Of the lawful obligations of governments to assist people in their right to self-determination, autonomy or self-government as well as ways and means to finance their autonomous functions.
For states to provide redress and restitution of cultural, intellectual, religious and spiritual property taken without their free, prior and informed consent or in violation of their laws, traditions and customs.
And, to be based on principles of justice, democracy, non-discrimination, good faith and respect for human rights;
And, to bring to an end all forms of discrimination and oppression;
Our conclusion, simply put is: “The people shall govern.”
League of Nations
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations [la sɔsjete de nɑsjɔ̃] abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, the arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.
The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed. However, the Great Powers were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them. During the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that “the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out.”
After a number of notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s. Germany withdrew from the League, as did Japan, Italy, Spain, and others. The onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war. The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it after the end of the Second World War on 20 April 1946 and inherited a number of agencies and organisations founded by the League.
- Christian, Tomuschat (1995). The United Nations at Age Fifty: A Legal Perspective. Martinus Nijhoff LOLPublishers. p. 77. ISBN 9789041101457.
- “Covenant of the League of Nations”. The Avalon Project. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
- See Article 23, “Covenant of the League of Nations”. , “Treaty of Versailles”. and Minority Rights Treaties.
- Jahanpour, Farhang. “The Elusiveness of Trust: the experience of Security Council and Iran” (PDF). Transnational Foundation of Peace and Future Research. p. 2. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
Read more at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/League_of_Nations
The organization was founded in Belgrade in 1961, and was largely conceived by India’s first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru; Indonesia’s first president, Sukarno; Egypt’s second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser; Ghana’s first president Kwame Nkrumah; and Yugoslavia’s president, Josip Broz Tito. All five leaders were prominent advocates of a middle course for states in the Developing World between the Western and Eastern Blocs in the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations.
The Non-Aligned movement was never established as a formal organization, but became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961. The term “non-alignment” was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel (five restraints), these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:
- Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
- Mutual non-aggression
- Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs
- Equality and mutual benefit
- Peaceful co-existence
- “NAM Members & Observers”. 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, Tehran, 26–31 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- “The Non-Aligned Movement: Background Information”. Government of Zaire. 21 September 2001. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- Ma’Aroof, Mohammad Khalid (1 January 1987). “Afghanistan in World Politics: (a Study of Afghan-U.S. Relations)”. ISBN 978-8-121-20097-4.
H.I.M. Haile Selassie address to the United Nations Oct 6, 1963
Mr. President, Distinguished Delegates: Twenty-seven years ago, as Emperor of Ethiopia, I mounted the rostrum in Geneva, Switzerland, to address the League of Nations and to appeal for relief from the destruction which had been unleashed against my defenseless nation, by the Fascist invader. I spoke then both to and for the conscience of the world. My words went unheeded, but history testifies to the accuracy of the warning that I gave in 1936.
Today, I stand before the world organization which has succeeded to the mantle discarded by its discredited predecessor. In this body is enshrined the principle of collective security which I unsuccessfully invoked at Geneva. Here, in this Assembly, reposes the best – perhaps the last – hope for the peaceful survival of mankind.
In 1936, I declared that it was not the Covenant of the League that was at stake, but international morality. Undertakings, I said then, are of little worth if the will to keep them is lacking. The Charter of the United Nations expresses the noblest aspirations of man: abjuration of force in the settlement of disputes between states; the assurance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion; the safeguarding of international peace and security.
But these, too, as were the phrases of the Covenant, are only words; their value depends wholly on our will to observe and honor them and give them content and meaning. The preservation of peace and the guaranteeing of man’s basic freedoms and rights require courage and eternal vigilance: courage to speak and act – and if necessary, to suffer and die – for truth and justice; eternal vigilance, that the least transgression of international morality shall not go undetected and unremedied.
These lessons must be learned anew by each succeeding generation, and that generation is fortunate indeed which learns from other than its own bitter experience. This Organization and each of its members bear a crushing and awesome responsibility: to absorb the wisdom of history and to apply it to the problems of the present, in order that future generations may be born, and live, and die, in peace.
…On the question of racial discrimination, the Addis Ababa Conference taught, to those who will learn, this further lesson: That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned:
That until there are no longer first-class and second class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man’s skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting illusion, to be pursued but never attained; And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique and in South Africa in subhuman bondage have been toppled and destroyed; Until bigotry and prejudice and malicious and inhuman self-interest have been replaced by understanding and tolerance and good-will; Until all Africans stand and speak as free beings, equal in the eyes of all men, as they are in the eyes of Heaven; Until that day, the African continent will not know peace. We Africans will fight, if necessary, and we know that we shall win, as we are confident in the victory of good over evil.
…The problems which confront us today are, equally, unprecedented. They have no counterparts in human experience. Men search the pages of history for solutions, for precedents, but there are none. This, then, is the ultimate challenge. Where are we to look for our survival, for the answers to the questions which have never before been posed? We must look, first, to Almighty God, Who has raised man above the animals and endowed him with intelligence and reason. We must put our faith in Him, that He will not desert us or permit us to destroy humanity which He created in His image. And we must look into ourselves, into the depth of our souls. We must become something we have never been and for which our education and experience and environment have ill-prepared us. We must become bigger than we have been: more courageous, greater in spirit, larger in outlook. We must become members of a new race, overcoming petty prejudice, owing our ultimate allegiance not to nations but to our fellow men within the human community.”
Oct. 6, 1963; © nazret.com Ethiopian News
The words of the above speech were immortalised by Bob Marley:
United Nations declares the Holy See legally responsible and accountable to Indigenous Peoples for effects and legacy of racist colonial Papal Bulls and Doctrines
Press Release from the Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group; 14 January 2016
As the result of a comprehensive shadow report and presentations by members of the Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group submitted to the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) for the Committee’s review of the Holy See, the UN CERD Committee has recognized that the Doctrine of Discovery, the Holy See’s Inter Caetera and related Papal Bulls are within the legal scope of racial discrimination under International Law and therefore require redress.
The UN CERD Committee has also recognized in its concluding observations that the Holy See is responsible for the past and present effects, i.e. the ongoing legacy, of these historical racist legal documents, and that, in addition, the Holy See must be in direct dialogue with appropriate representatives of Indigenous Peoples to discuss its accountability.
The CERD Committee has additionally recognized that the Holy See, in its response to the Committee’s questioning regarding issues raised by the Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group, remarked that a high-level meeting between Indigenous Peoples and the Pope regarding the canonization of Juniper Serra (see pages 13, 14, 27, 28, 30, 34, 35, 38, 48 of the shadow report) will occur at an unspecified time in the future, but that knowledge of such a meeting with Indigenous Peoples has thus-far excluded the Apache-Nde Nnee Working Group, as well as the additional issues raised in the shadow report, such as the Doctrine of Discovery, the Holy See’s Inter Caetera and related Papal Bulls, and the past and ongoing effects and legacy therein. The CERD Committee has concluded that these issues and appropriate representatives of Indigenous Peoples must be included in said high-level meeting.
With the support of the UN CERD Committee and its Concluding Observations therein, the Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group holds firm and demand that this dialogue between the Pope and Indigenous Peoples must indeed occur, and must include the Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group and the issues of the Apache-Nde Nnee, including those issues raised in the Working Group’s shadow report, for full accountability of the Holy See and justice to occur. These dialogues must result in genuine redress and remedy and in the establishment or supporting of the establishment of one or more related Truth Commission(s). Moreover, such a Truth Commission must occur with respect to self-determination, historical correction, and the rights of women and all affected peoples therein.
Follow-up by the UN CERD Committee on the progress of the Holy See in these measures will occur at the Committee’s next review of the Holy See, as per the Committee’s Concluding Observations.
For further questions or information contact:
Michael Paul Hill, project leader and originator of the Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group and shadow report, firstname.lastname@example.org / phone: +1 520-261-7074
India Reed Bowers, legal counsel and project co-coordinator for the Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group and shadow report, email@example.com / phone: +46 (0) 70-283-4808
Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group Shadow Report:
CERD Concluding Observations:
Video recordings of the CERD Holy See review sessions, including Apache-Nde-Nnee Working Group oral interventions:
Transcripts of CERD – Holy See State review session:
AFN Chief Calls for Implementation of UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Assembly of First Nations National Chief Perry Bellegarde Calls for Implementation of UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
OTTAWA, April 21, 2016 /CNW/ – Assembly of First Nations (AFN) National Chief Perry Bellegarde commented today on the Private Member’s Bill put forward by Roméo Saganash, NDP Member of Parliament for Abitibi-Baie-James-Nunavik-Eeyou (QC), C-262 – An Act to ensure that the laws of Canada are in harmony with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
“The AFN welcomes this initiative as a means to move Canada forward in adopting and implementing the UN Declaration as an integral part of reconciliation,” said AFN National Chief Bellegarde. “The Declaration confirms the rights of Indigenous peoples as human rights. Its principles provide a framework for the implementation of Aboriginal and Treaty rights in the relationship between First Nations and Canada. Giving life to the Declaration will move all of Canada forward.”
In 2015, National Chief Bellegarde wrote to all Members of Parliament urging them to support an earlier version of this Bill, which was supported in the House by all NDP and Liberals MPs. The National Chief and AFN will examine the latest version of the Bill and engage First Nations and all MPs on next steps.
AFN Quebec-Labrador Regional Chief Ghislain Picard said: “We welcome with enthusiasm a Private Member’s Bill on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples tabled this morning by Mr. Roméo Saganash. We believe that all parties must see this next logical step as an opportunity for Canada to reconcile with its colonial past.”
The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples sets out minimum standards for ensuring Indigenous peoples enjoy fundamental human rights, including the collective right to self-determination and rights in their traditional territories. The Declaration is an essential framework for reconciliation and renewing the nation-to-nation relationship as called for by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). The federal government has committed to implementing the TRC’s calls to action, starting with the implementation of the UN Declaration. The National Chief will be at the United Nations next month to attend meetings of the Permanent Forum on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples where the UN Declaration will feature prominently in the discussions.
The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples can be read at: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf
The Assembly of First Nation is the national organization representing First Nation citizens in Canada.
For further information: Alain Garon, AFN Bilingual Communications Officer, 613-241-6789, ext. 382; 613-292-0857 or firstname.lastname@example.org; Jenna Young Castro AFN Communications Officer 613-241-6789, ext. 401; 613-314-8157 or email@example.com
Canada will implement UN Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Carolyn Bennett says
By Joanna Smith; Ottawa Bureau reporter; Tues., Dec. 8, 2015
OTTAWA—Indigenous and Northern Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett says the new Liberal government will rebuild the relationship with First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples by including them in every decision that affects them and their land.
“That means starting out right, such that everything has been considered before a decision is taken so that you can find that win-win of ‘you can develop there but not there,’ ” Bennett said in an interview this week, when asked how the Liberals plan to make good on their promise to implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP).
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau gave that sentiment a boost when he told his new cabinet ministers in their mandate letters: “No relationship is more important to me and to Canada than the one with Indigenous Peoples.”
The Crown already has a constitutionally protected “duty to consult” with aboriginal peoples on issues that might affect their interests, but the UN declaration goes much further and calls on governments to obtain “free, prior and informed consent,” including when it comes to natural resources development.
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Minister Carolyn Bennett says the new Liberal government will rebuild the relationship with First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples.
If Canada can do it then so can South Africa. Under the new constitutional dispensation since 1994, the judicial system is mandated and obligated to develop the common law and customary law systems. For further details on the fundamental obligations of South Africa read our Constitutional page at: https://giftoftruth.wordpress.com/constitutional/
What we consider to be the most important education for we, the people is to know our rights: https://giftoftruth.wordpress.com/your-rights/